Srimad Bhagvat Geeta



The Teachings of “Sri Krishna” – “Shrimad Bhagavad Gita”( The Eternal Song)

जय श्रीगणेशा

The great “Sanatana Dharma” (सनातन धर्म ) has been there for many thousands of years and the  divine “Vedas”(वेद) are referred to as the original sounds or “Shruti”(श्रुति) which refer to the original sounds of creation of the Universe and have been passed on through generations from Guru (गुरु ) to Shisya ( शिष्य ).

The Term “Veda”(वेद) is translated as “Knowledge” or “To Know”. The “Vedas” were never written down earlier and the first written version of “Vedas” originated about 2000 BC 

Similarly, the holy Upanishads (उपनिषद) which is actually translated to “Knowledge which is obtained Sitting near the Guru” which derive the esoteric meanings or the deep rooted philosophies of the “Vedas”(वेद) were created during 600 to 700 BC

However “The Greatest of All Teachers” – “Shri Krishna” (श्री कृष्ण ) Himself , laid down the Teachings of the divine Vedas in “The Shrimad Bhagvad Geeta”(श्रीमद भगवद् गीता ) to The Greatest Disciple “Arjuna” (अर्जुन) during the great war of “Mahabharata”(महाभारत) in the form of poetic verses in simple to understand form for everyone and till today is the most sacred and divine book for anyone who wants to understand “Dharma”(धर्म )

“Shrimad Bhagvad Gita”(श्रीमद भगवद गीता ) also known as “The Eternal Divine Song” consists of 700 “Shlokas” (श्लोक) divided over 18 “Adhyaya”(अध्याय) or chapters

“Shlokas”(श्लोक) are verses, praises of the Divine which can be chanted by anyone, at anytime. They are meant to inspire towards contemplation of the Supreme.

“Shlokas”(श्लोक) are different from “Mantras”(मन्त्र) which are an invocation or a set of sounds to invoke certain powers to the person chanting the “Mantra”(मन्त्र) or the people listening to the same. (They should be chanted at proper time and place and full attention to achieve the desired effect)

“Sri Krishna”(श्री कृष्ण) in his teachings has provided the holistic understanding of “Vedas” and has laid down path of “Dharma”(धर्म) or “Righteousness” in very simplistic yet profound principles through the process of “Samvada” (संवाद) or in the form of a conversation where “Arjuna” poses his questions and the Lord answers

In this divine poem, “Sri Krishna” (श्री कृष्ण ) clarified to “Arjuna” (अर्जुन ) about the need to discharge one’s “Duty” called “Swadharma” (स्वधर्म ) and explained the path of “Karma Yoga”(कर्म योग) through which one must perform one’s prescribed “Karma”(कर्म ) or “Actions” without having any sense of attachment to the fruits of one’s actions and doing the same unselfishly.

He also explained about the “Soul” or “Aatmaa”(आत्मा) being “Eternal” whereas the Body which carries the “Soul” and the “Mind” which provides Direction are transitory and are governed by the senses through the “Sense Organs” and are thus always in “Maayaa”(माया ) or “Illusion”

He has explained about the “Trayo Guna” (त्रयो गुण ) and the “Pancha Bhoota”(पञ्च भूत) and has explained about how the “Gunas” (गुण ) give rise to human emotions and thus in extremes can give rise to destructive traits like anger, arrogance, lust,jealousy and greed which are the cause of all evils in this world.

In his words, Every Human Being must transcend the traits of “Maayaa”(माया ) and lead the path which leads to one’s Soul ( Jeevatma or जीवात्मा ) or one’s True Self and in process achieve the state of “Divine Consciousness and Bliss” which is the path to realisation of “GOD” or “Paramatma” (परमात्मा)

“Sri Krishna”(श्री कृष्ण) in one of the verses of the Song, described himself as the Creator of the “Vedas” and he passing the knowledge to “Lord Brahma” and then to the Ancient “Rishis”(ऋषि) and referred to himself as “GOD Himself or his Incarnation” and being questioned by “Arjuna” as to how he was present so many generations back when he was being born in the present generation, he further clarified that “Both He and Arjuna have taken many forms of life and incarnations and although Arjuna has forgotten them being unaware of his “Soul”, He ( being GOD Himself) was aware of his all his previous births through the awareness of the “Divine Soul” or “Paramatma”(परमात्मा) and not being engulfed in “Maayaa”(माया)  or “Illusion”

He thus clarified “The  Soul being Immortal and All Pervading” in this famous verse as given below;

“नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः । न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥”

This “Soul” or “Aatmaa”(आत्मा) is not destroyed by Weapons or is destroyed by Fire.                  Water cannot wash it away or Wind cannot blow it away.    
Thus the Soul is Immortal and all Pervading and is not destroyed by the Forces of Nature or Prakriti (प्रकृति )
 
 Lord Krishna explains the Three Primary Yogas as “Jnana”(ज्ञान ) Yoga – “The Path of Knowledge”, “Karma”(कर्म ) Yoga – “The Path of Action”, “Bhakti”(भक्ति ) Yoga – “The Path of Devotion”
and along with them the 4th Yoga being – “Raja”(राज ) Yoga – “The Control on Mind”
 
“Yoga”(योग ) – Yoga means “To Connect” or “The State of the Self through which one can connect to GOD or “Paramatma” (परमात्मा )
 
श्री भगवानुवाच
लोकेऽस्मिन्द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ।
ज्ञानयोगेन सांख्यानां कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम्।।3.3।।

Sri Bhagawaan Speaks:”

O Arjuna, two kinds of steadfastness in this world were spoken of by Me since the ancient times -through the Yoga of Knowledge for the men of realisation; through the Yoga of Action for the yogis.

In this above verse “Sri Krishna” ( श्री कृष्ण ) explains the two divine paths of “Yoga” ( योग )where one of the path which can be taken by the  “Seekers” who are in the pursuit of “Divine Knowledge” which is called “Gyana or Jnayana” (ज्ञान) Yoga. A “Seeker” or “Sankhya” takes the path of “Self Realization and Enlightenment” and becomes and Enlightened Soul. These Souls are not connected to the Illusory World of “Maayaa” ( माया ) and thus are disconnected from the same and thus they don’t perform any “Action” or “Karma”(कर्म )

“Sri Gautama Buddha”(श्री गौतम बुद्ध ) was one such Enlightened and “Divine Soul” and he shunned his Royal Life of that of a Prince to become a “Monk“or “Sanyasi“(सन्यासी)

However, there is another type of “Yoga” called “Karma Yoga“(कर्म योग) which is the “Yoga of Action” which “Lord Krishna The Divine“(परमात्मा श्री कृष्ण )  has given higher value compared to “Gyana or Jnayana Yoga“(ज्ञान योग). It is because, the “Creation” or “Shrishti”(श्रिष्टि) will cease to exist through Inaction and “Actions” or “Karma”(कर्म ) must be performed so that the Creation or  “Shrishti” continues

“Sri Krishna”(श्री कृष्ण ) in this “Everlasting and Divine Song” has also explained about the way to lead the path of “Action” or “Karma Yoga”(कर्म योग )  through the process of performing “Selfless or Dispassionate Actions

Before that, he has also explained about “Maayaa”(माया) or “Guna”(गुण) and he has explained the “Forces of Nature”,”The Guna” (त्रयो गुण ) and how to transcend them in a few beautiful verses some of which are as follows:

“त्रैगुण्यविषया वेद निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन |

निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मव(न् ||”

In the above verse, “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्ण ) explains thus :

“The “Three Gunas”(त्रयो गुण ) are the main components within which the circumference of which “The Divine Vedas” (वेद) analyse life. “O Arjuna(अर्जुन)” you must transcend them. Fix your mind on the ultimate “Truth“(सत्य) and be free from the concerns of the material world. Always Concentrate on the “Self or Aatmaa”(आत्मा)”

In the verse below “Sri Krishna also speaks about the excess of “Rajo Guna“(रजो गुण ) is the cause of all Evils in the world and makes one act improperly overshadowing the true nature of ‘The Self
 
श्री भगवानुवाच – काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसंभुद्भवः |
महाशनो महापात्मा विद्वयेनमहि वैरिणम् ||
In this verse “Lord” says – It is the influence of Lust and Anger, the Rajo-Guna, which finally transforms into great anger and reckless behaviour. Like a great fire this is dangerous. Realise that this is your greatest Enemy”  

“योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनंजयः |

सिद्ध्यसिद्धयोः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योगं उच्यते ||”

In the above verse, “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्ण ) explains thus :

Mind fixed on Duty and all thoughts and about the fruits of your action abandoned; such equanimity of mind is the essence of “Yoga”, O winner of wealth

Sri Krishna” ( श्री कृष्ण ) in one of the Greatest Verses of “Geeta” ( Verse # 47 in the 2nd Adhyaya (अध्याय ) ) explains the concept of “Nishkama Karma(निष्काम कर्म) or the concept of performing “Selfless or Dispassionate Actions”:

“कर्मण्येवाधिकरस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन |

मा कर्मपहलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोस्त्वकर्मणि “

In the above verse, “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्ण ) explains thus :

O Arjuna (अर्जुन), Having acquired the state of a warrior, you are now eligible to act in whatever way the stature of a warrior demands of you. But you are not entitled to any benefits resulting from your actions. At the same time having the responsibility of that of a warrior you are not entitled to a state of not acting all.

Thus you should act according to your stature without any hope of enjoying the fruits of your actions

In the above verse, “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्णin his beautiful words has explained the purpose of every living soul who wants to engage in the “Yoga of Action” or “Karma Yoga”(कर्म योग). In very simple words he has thus laid down thus that although one needs to act all the time being part of this World or “Creation” (श्रिष्टि) but at the same time one must do the action dispassionately without having any sense of attachment or desire towards the fruit of the same.

In another Verse, “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्ण ) explains about the value and need of performing “Action” or “Karma“(कर्म) and he explained although he did not have any need of performing any “Karma” yet the “Creation” cannot survive if he is stops performing “Action” and thus “He” is obliged to do so to “Sustain” the creation in this “World”

न मे पार्थास्ति कर्तव्यम् त्रिषु लोकेषु किञ्चन |

नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि ||

“O Son of Pritha ( Partha), though there is no action, that I need to complete in all three worlds  I still do my duties”

He” further goes on to say

यदि ह्यहं न वर्तेयं जातु कर्मन्यतंद्रितः |

मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्य पार्थ सर्वसः ||”

“For If I fail to engage myself in proper action, with great care, “O Partha”, people would follow my footsteps and act like me”

“Sri Krishna”(श्रीकृष्ण ) in many of  the verses spoke about “Himself” or “The Paramatma“(परमात्मा) and what is the purpose of “His” birth in the Earth or “Prithvi“(पृथ्वी )

श्री भगवान ऊवाच – इमं विवस्वते योगं फ्रोक्तवानहमब्ययम् |

विवस्वान्मनवे प्राह मनुरिश्वक्वेअब्रवीत् || “

“Lord Krishna said: I explained this eternal science of “Yoga”(योग) to Rishi (ऋषि) “Vivaswaan”(विवस्वान) and then it has been passed over many “Ages” to Rishi “Manu”(मनु) and then imparted to “Iksvaaku”(इक्ष्वाकु)

 On being questioned by “Arjuna” that how “Sri Krishna” taught this science to “Vivaswaan”(विवस्वान) when “He” was born long after him, to this the “Lord” explained in the beautiful verses narrated below:

श्री भगवान उवाच – बहुनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव अर्जुन |

तान्यहं वेद सर्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परंतप || “

“Lord Krishna said: Arjuna, both you and I have had many births. I remember all of them, whereas you have forgotten the same”

अजोअपि सन्नव्ययात्मा भुतानामीश्वरो अपि सन् |
प्रकृतिं स्वामधिष्ठाय संभवाम्यात्ममायया || “
In this Verse “Sri Krishna” says:
Although I am Birthless and by nature “Eternal” or “Ananta”(अनन्त) , and although I am the controller of all beings, I still remain in control of my Material Energy, I manifest by My Own Inner Power.”
 
 The Most powerful Verse in “श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता”(Shrimad Bhagavad Gita) where “Sri Krishna” explains about the purpose of “His” Life or Form on Earth and it is in the “7th and 8th Verses” of the “4th Adyaaya” (अध्याय) 
 
“यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत |
आभुथानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं स्रुजाम्यहम्  ||
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुश्क्रुताम् | 
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थय संभवामि युगे युगे ||” 
 
“O descendant of “Bharata”(भरत), whenever there is a decline in “Dharma”(धर्म) and an abundance of unrighteousness, at that time I take form.
I appear every millennium to protect the virtuous and pious, to annihilate  evildoers, and to establish “Dharma”(धर्म ) or “Righteousness”
 
In the verse below “Sri Krishna“(श्री कृष्ण ) explains the path of “Moksha“(मोक्ष) thus:
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः |
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति ममेति सो अर्जुन ||
 
“One who is fully aware of the divine nature of my birth and activities does not take birth again in the material world but attains me, O ‘Arjuna'(अर्जुन)”
 
Sri Krishna” thus goes on to explain many important concepts and facets of “Yoga” which also means “To be Connected to the Self or Paramatma” to “Arjuna” in this “Divine and Eternal Song“.
He explains about the concept of the “Varna“(वर्ण ) System and how the “Guna” or “Qualities” determine a person’s “Varna” or “Caste or Profession
In the Ancient times, the “Varna” system existed on the basis of a person’s qualities of “Merit” and not merely by birth.
He” has also explained one other very important concept of “Yagna“(यज्ञ) or “Sacrifice” and he explains people perform sacrifices in various means. Some by performing rituals , some by donations, some by performing austerities. But, “He” also mentions that one who burns his material desires in the Sacrificial pyre of “Divine Knowledge” and “Selfless Actions” becomes a True “Yogi”(योगी) and thus performs the “Highest (श्रेष्ठ) Sacrifice (यज्ञ)”.
 
He” also mentions the futility of rituals which people perform without understanding the essence or with the desire to achieve material pleasures for the senses. Such people are ignorant and thus incur “Karmic Debt” and get entangled with the nature of the “Senses” or “Guna
And at the same time performing “Deeds” or “Actions” with a sense of “Yogic Responsibility” by being unattached to the fruits of the same, the person attains “Liberation” or “Freedom from Bondage“(मोक्ष or Moksha)
 
In the First 6 chapters in “Srimad Bhagvad Gita” (श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता ), “The Lord” describes “Karma Yoga”(कर्म योग ) – The Path of Action, in the next 6 chapters “He” explains about “Bhakti Yoga”(भक्ति योग ) – The Path of Devotion and in the last 6 chapters, he explains about “Gyana or Jnyana Yoga”- The Path of Spiritual Realization through Divine Knowledge”
 
In all the Three types of “Divine Paths” or “Yoga“, The “God” explains about the Three different paths of reaching “Him” and thus in the process of attaining “Moksha“(मोक्ष) or to be freed from “Rebirth
If you refer to one my earlier blogs in this series, I have explained the connection of each of our souls to the “Ultimate Supreme GOD” or in other worlds the connection between the “Jeevatma” to the “Paramatma” and thus at the end that is what the “Soul” actually desires to be “Liberated” from the cycles of “Birth” and “Death”.
 
But at the same time, “The Divine Geeta” prescribes different paths to achieve the same goal of “Liberation” and “Sri Krishna– The Greatest Teacher Himself” has spoken to “Arjuna – The Greatest Disciple and The Greatest Warrior” that the “Path of Action” or “Karma Yoga“(कर्म योग)
 
The Divine Teachings of “श्रीमद भगवद् गीता” or “The Eternal Song” is relevant for all sections of the society and in all generations. In today’s age , the age of “Kal Yuga“(कल युग), the teachings of “The Gita” are most relevant as we have lost the connection to our “True Inner Self” or “Aatmaa“(आत्मा) and most of us are in the “whirlpool of life” where we are constantly circling trying to satisfy our insatiable “Ego” through “Material Possessions and Comforts” or through “Hedonistic Pleasures“.
Our Society is on the Brink and unless we Act now in the Rightful manner , we are going to see more dissatisfaction, disillusionment, pain, deceit and suffering due to “Ignorance” and “Selfishness”and the forthcoming generation might completely fall prey to the same leading to complete “Adharma“(अधर्म) and “Anarchy
Thus it is time, we finally start following and practising the Divine teachings of “Sri Krishna” which he has imparted to “Arjuna” and align our “Thoughts and Actions” as per the same and as a offering to “Him” or “The Paramatma“(परमात्मा)
With this I am closing this chapter and in the next one I will go deeper into the aspects of Nature, “The Trayo Guna” and “The Pancha Bhoota” and how they influence our actions and also explain the effects of the imbalances of the same and how are they linked to the “Four types of Actions”(कर्म) – Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha (धर्म, अर्थ, काम, मोक्ष).
I will also explain this by linking the same to some of the “Great characters” in our “Two Greatest Epics” – “The Ramayana“(श्री रामायण) and “The Mahabharata“(श्री महाभारत)

जयश्री राम 

References:

https://www.yugalsarkar.com/bhagwad-gita-chapter-3-shlok-3-ramanuja#:~:text=3.3%20The%20Blessed%20Lord%20said,of%20Action%20for%20the%20yogis.

https://www.speakingtree.in/allslides/nainam-chindanti-sastrani-nainam-dahati-pavakah-571436

https://www.quora.com/What-is-Yoga-as-described-by-Krishna-in-Geeta

Srimad Bhagavad Gita publication by “Srinivas Arts pvt ltd, Sivakashi, Tamil Nadu”

 

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